"I am trying to convert Hindus back to Hindu religion and that will stop Hindus getting converted to other religions." -- Swami Chinmayananda
Indian Background of Nietzchean Thought
07/03/2009 14:07:33  

































                              
                                       




By M. P. Ajith Kumar*







                       






 
 Right from the dawn of civilization India
has been at the vanguard of intellectual renaissance, influencing the cultural
and spiritual progress of the world. In fact behind many of the modern concepts
Europe has developed of late, one could discern this intellectual light from
the orient which India
lit up. India’s
versatile influence on the West was immortal, infinite and intellectualizing.
This is how Will Durant, the great Westerner and the most noted
philosopher-Historian, dealt with this aspect:





 






       Let us remember that… India was the
mother land of our race, and Sanskrit the mother of Europe’s languages; that
she was the mother of our philosophy; mother, through the Arabs, of much of our
mathematics; mother through Buddha, of the ideals embodied in Christianity;
mother through the village community, of self-government and democracy. Mother
India is in many ways the mother of us all.1





 



This Indian influence on European thought about which
many renowned scholars like Will Durant waxed eloquent, started from the
earliest stage of the world’s history and many cultural zones receptive to the
high oriental philosophy in general and Indian thought in particular imbibed Indology
to the maximum that they could do wonders in their countries and places thus
far unfamiliar with the most original thoughts as were available from India.
That Indian thoughts very deeply influenced many faculties of knowledge around
the world is attested by the semantic studies in different world languages too.




 




     Among the
many European nations the most noted beneficiary of Indology was Germany
and the leading among the many German scholars who had heavily drawn upon
Indology was the pioneering European philosopher, Friederich Nietzsche. A
legatee of the gems of thought on universal soul left by Schopenhauer whose
adherence to the Indian idea pertaining to soul and ardour for truth made him
see this soul’s reflection even in his pet poodle whom he named Atma,2 Friederich Nietzsche
was so deeply enamoured of Indian lore that he with his unquenchable thirst for
knowledge and indomitable intellect dived deep into the infinite ocean of the
oriental wisdom, especially the Upanishads.




 




   Though had
shown much interest in the teachings of Zend
Avesta
and had written on the most celebrated song of Zarathushtra
“Nietzsche’s ability to transcend logic, his religious ideas and the aphoristic
style of his writings are more traceable to India
than Zoroaster and Persia3.
That it was more the spiritual tradition of India than any thing else that cast
Nietzschean philosophy is well attested by almost all his writings. Indian
thought that penetrated beyond all, beyond even good and evil which it
considered harmful and went on to select a middle path that lies between the
both had significant bearing on many of the thinking minds the world over. This
idea India
nurtured down the lanes of its tradition had its profound reflections in the
teachings of her ancient philosophers like Sri Krishna and Sri Buddha. They
developed the idea of ‘unattachment’ that lies between attachment and
detachment, joy and sorrow, pain and pleasure and finally birth and death. This
is the state of virag (with raga or attachment to nothing) or a yogi who treads the middle path or the madhyamika marga with his balanced
thought and action (samyak samadhi
and samyak karma). This is how a
modern Indian teacher explains it in the light of the Bhagavad Gita:




 



Good and evil will both have their results,
will produce their karma. Good action will entail upon us good effect; bad
action, bad. But good and bad are both bondages of the soul. The solution
reached in the Gita, in regard to
this bondage-producing nature of work is, that if we do not attach ourselves to
the work we do, it will not have any binding effect on our soul. We shall try
to understand what is meant by this “non-attachment” to work.




 



He further clarifies:




 



A golden chain is as much a chain as an
iron one. There is a thorn in my finger, and I use another to take the first
one out; and when I have taken it out, I throw both of them aside; I have no
necessity of keeping the second thorn, because both are thorns after all. So
the bad tendencies are to be counteracted by the good ones, and the bad
impressions on the mind should be removed by the fresh waves of good ones until
all that is evil almost disappears, or is subdued and held in control in a
corner of the mind; but after that the good tendencies have also to be
conquered. Thus the “attached” becomes “unattached”4.




 




 This in fact is
the state of Samadhi wherein the dhi or intellect is well balanced,
wherein one, totally untouched by externalities, is the master of himself. This
is the state of the Buddha or
according to the Gita of the Yogi or the one endowed with the
‘Wisdom’ which takes one beyond Good and Evil. Thus says the Gita:




                         
Buddhiyukto jahatiha ubhe sukrutadushkrute




                        
Tasmadyogaya yujysva yoga karmasu kausalam.5




 



(Endowed with this wisdom, one gets rid of both good
and evil; therefore take to Yoga; Yoga is the skill in work.)




 



The Gita
further explains the nature of the one with well established intellect. “He who
is free from affection everywhere, and who getting whatever good or evil
neither welcomes nor hates them has steady wisdom”, it says. He who is with
well established wisdom is called stitaprajnja.
Thus says the Gita:




 




                      

Yadasamharate chayam kurmonganiva
sarvasa  





                      

Indriyanindriyarthebhyasthasya
prajnja pratishtita
.6




 



“As the tortoise tucks its feet and head inside the
shell, and you may kill it and break it in pieces, and yet it will not come
out, even so the character of that man who has control over his motives and
organs is unchangeably established”.7




 




    The narrow
confines of Christianity and the Europe vulgarizing this eastern religion had
greatly ailed Nietzsche and his love for what existed before the Europeans,
finding themselves in identity crisis and cutting new identity for themselves,
destroyed the old cultures which they disparaged pagan often touched a
spiritual height. No wonder this German thinker’s soul yearned to return to the
old moorings wherein man identified himself with the entirety of the universe
and everything sourced off from the springs of truth. “Promise me”, he said
once to his sister

,
“that when I die only my friends shall
stand about my coffin, and no inquisitive crowd. See that no priest or anyone
else utter falsehoods at my graveside, when I can no longer protect myself; and
let me descend into my tomb as an honest pagan”.8 Here indeed is
another exhortation from his pagan heart:




 



Remain loyal to the earth, my brothers,
with all the power of your virtue! Let the overflowing gift of your love and
your knowledge confer the meaning of the earth!9




 




  Naturally he
sought solutions for the problems confronting him in a vision of elite group
who are beyond good and evil, an aristocracy embodying the noble virtues of an
idealized Indian system. Tawney in The
Philosophy of Nietzsche
describes his infatuation for the Indian systems in
regard to this aspect:




 



…in case of the unique natures of noble
origin, if by virtue of superior spirituality they should incline to a more
retired and contemplative life, reserving to themselves only the more refined
forms of government (over chosen disciples or members of an order), religion
itself may be used as a means for obtaining peace from the noise and trouble of
managing grosser affairs, for
securing immunity from the unavoidable
filth of all political agitation. The Brahmins, for instance, understood this
fact. With the help of a religious organization, they secured to themselves the
power of nominating kings for the people, while their sentiments prompted them
to keep apart and outside, as men with a higher and super-regal mission.10




 




    This
aristocracy, Nietzsche believed could be reached at only through the path that
goes to the world which is beyond good and evil. Such a man who is free from
both these aspects alone gets Bodhi
or the state of Nirvana or Jivanmukti which according to
philosophical discourse is the state of a living being free from both
attachment and detachment. He is like a zero placed in the balanced position
between the two extremities. With his powers infinite and his capacity to
accommodate everything and all irrespective of any difference, he sees
everything with equanimity and exalted temperament. This is how Nietzsche
speaks about such a state of mind and soul:




 



…“good” and “bad” is synonymous with the
opposition “noble” and “despicable” – the antithesis “good” and “evil”
originates elsewhere. The noble type of man feels himself to be the evaluator of values, he does not seek the
approval of anyone, he judges that “that which harms me is harmful in itself”,
he knows himself to be someone who, in general, honours things; he creates
values. He honours all that which he knows to be a part of himself…the noble
human being …helps the unfortunate… from an urge emerging from his superfluous
strength. The man who has power over himself, who knows how to speak and how to
remain silent, who enjoys practicing severity and harshness upon himself…11





 





   This appears
like the expression of another European scientist who saw in the mathematical
symbol of Zero, Nirvana condensed
into a dynamo. Certainly an individual who attained such a highest state of
mind is the most powerful. Living in the world, he would be above it like the
divine. This indeed is nothing but the mind of India which seeks to be
unattached, the mind which expresses itself through different symbols – the
seated Buddha in Samadhi or Sambodhi immersed in his introspective
bliss or the supreme symbol that balances between the two entities of creation
and destruction, the force of preservation represented through Vishnu immersed
in his cosmic sleep or the Yoganidra.
This is the state of the person who identifies everything as a part of himself
or sees all in himself or himself in all. He loves everything because he knows
everything as a part of himself. This idea Nietzsche preached to Europe is
nothing but the idea of universal love embodied in the teachings of the Buddha
which Jesus Christ took centuries ago to Europe
from the East or the idea of cosmic unity and interconnectedness as envisioned
in the Upanishads and the Gita. Jacques Duchesne-Guillemin who
finds traces of the Gathas in the
writings of Nietzsche opines that his work on Zoroaster was more influenced by
Indology than by the Avesta. Armand
Quinot who researched in Nietzschean studies wrote:




 



On more than one occasion, Zarathustra, the
poetry, and the posthumous fragments call to mind the religious lyric poetry of
India.
Dionysos recollects having been the Indian Bacchus. What his initiates says of
him the devotees of Shiva have frequently said of their God: is he not the
emerald God, the God from whom one cosmic day to another becomes, dies and is
reborn, the God of the orgiastic, the Creator, the Guide, and the Destroyer,
the God who dances and makes the worlds dance ceaselessly from their morning to
their evening?12




 




    Besides,
Nietzsche was greatly influenced by Manu
Smruthi
which cast its spell on the teachings of Zarathustra, and he
considered almost all ethical systems of the world as mere imitations or
reproductions of it. Just like Schopenhauer, his predecessor, Nietzsche was of
esteemed opinion about the ethical code of Manu whose description of the
practical philosophy of Varnashrama
Dharma
led him to his ideal of the Will-to-Power
which changed the very destiny of Europe.
Manu’s faith in man as the maker of his future, his affirmative religion, the
religion of his potential strength and heroic calmness that go to make the
superhuman made Nietzsche exhort to closely follow the code of Manu.13
Bowing in veneration to the oriental philosophy and much enamoured of the Manu
Smruthi, Nietzsche opinionates that Manu had




 



organized the highest possible means of
making life flourish…The Law of Manu [is] an incomparably intellectual and
superior work. It is replete with noble values, it is filled with a feeling of
perfection, with a saying of yea to life; the sun shines upon the whole book… I
know of no book in which so many delicate things are said of women as in the
Law Book of Manu… “The breath of woman”, says Manu on one occasion, “the breast
of a woman, the prayer of a child and the smoke of sacrifice are always pure”.14




 






      With high
appreciation for the idea of independence the oriental philosophies waxed
eloquent on, Nietzsche abhorred the artificial and enforced disciplines of the
West followed in the name of God and religion and was always enamoured of
“stepping out of the Christian atmosphere of hospitals and poisons” into a more
salubrious, loftier and more spacious world” where one breaths freely.15
He condemns the ‘slave morality’, the Christian meekness, forgiveness, patience
and love as no more than the mimicry of impotent hatred which dares not to be
anything but meek and patient, or seem anything but loving, though it dreams of
heaven and hell.16  He even
went to the extent of exhorting to “close the Bible and open the Codes of Manu”
which according to him contained the lofty sermon on the philosophy of the
eternal freedom. This freedom of the individual-will from all the externalities
and impositions alone could lead to the ultimate perfection of human life,
Nietzsche believed. Therefore he developed the ideas of Superman and Will-to-power.
The Superman is the state of a man
totally salvaged by his own action from the fetters of the mundane existence as
envisioned in the Indian lore while the Will-to-power
is the leonine means to this end.
Thilly, the historian of Western Philosophy thus sums up the Nietzschean ideas:



What men desire ultimately is not
pleasure…Men willingly sacrifice pleasures and incur suffering for the sake of
greater power; and the power which finds expression in creative activity offers
ultimate happiness which all men desire, although it involves a large measure
of pain and discomfort. Happiness – in the sense of that state which is desired
ultimately – does not consist of a preponderance of pleasurable moments which
are free from pain…Pursuit of this happiness involves a high degree of
self-discipline, for we lack great power as long as we are dominated by animal
passions. By sublimating his impulses and employing them creatively, man can
yet raise himself above beasts and attain that unique dignity…Those who attain
this state are Ubermenschen
(supermen).17




 



These Supermen are found everywhere without
differences of cultures, time and places they are born, Nietzsche believed. The
Superman, he says, is above everything and almost divine that he is
uninfluenced by any malice, hatred, jealousy or any such negative or philistine
aspects. He is “like an ocean to be able to receive a river of filth without
being contaminated by it” and “squanders his soul… asks for no thanks and
accepts nothing in return…”18  A great admirer of the laws of Manu,
Nietzsche was to the fairest extent influenced by the Indian law giver’s view
that “to act solely from the desire for reward is not laudable”19 or
“that the knowledge of dharma is
prescribed only for those not given to desire and acquision of wealth”.20
Nietzsche wrote:




 



…life itself whispered this secret to me: I
am that which must overcome itself over and over again…Life taught me this
once; everlasting good and evil do not exist! From out of themselves they must
overcome themselves – over and over again.21




 




    The path to
this state of Superman is the Will-to-Power
rather than a mere will to live like anything. It is this Will-to-Power that makes life worthy. “Only where there is life is
there also a will: but not a will to life – rather: will to power”.22  By introducing his ideas of Superman and Will-to-Power, Nietzsche was guiding the modern age once again to
the world’s old moorings, the light from where, he firmly believed, could lead
the entire humanity to a spiritual height. “Good men, in all ages, are those
who plough the old thoughts into the earth, planting them deep down and
nurturing them until they bear fruit – they are the farmers of spirit”.23
Indeed the Nietzschean teachings proved an eye opener to Europe
which grew arrogant of its progress in the world of materialistic science. They
were, as the modern Indian philosopher Sri Aurobindo observes, “an attempt to
read profoundly and live by the life-soul of the universe and tended to be
deeply psychological and subjective in their method” and has led to the rise of
a new intuitionalism “laying hands on the sealed doors of the spirit”.24
The Will-to-Power was thus Nietzsche’s
search for the inherent power of spirituality latent in man and the universe.
In some circumstances it may appear that the whole aim of humanity is a
‘will-to-live’. But this is not so. What man desires or should desire is not
the mere preservation, but an enhancement of his state of being i.e. the
greater power. The triumph in competition which was a prominent element in
Greek education and culture, the artistic creation, the philosopher’s
intellectual conquest of the cosmos or the ascetic’s self-conquest are the
manifestations of the Will-to-Power.
Man is not a seeker of the mere worldly pleasures which are fraught with
sadness. There is the eternal happiness deriving from the vision of beauty the
pursuit of which requires the self-conquest. To attain this state of bliss, if
to quote Nietzsche, men must “overcome themselves”.25




 




    But the war
frenzied Germany or her
leaders could not make out the real import of the Nietzschean ideas and
philosophy which, if properly made out, would have sublimated the nation-soul
of Germany.
What Nietzsche envisioned was given only a dilettantish approach. Just seeing
the mirage or the unreal spirit, Germany
slap-dashed into the dark.26 Nietzsche’s Will-to-Power was mistaken as an exhortation for aggression and
imperialism, dragging Germany
to the verge of destructive and premature adventure. It was a national
misfortune to Germany
that her politicians could not understand the lofty ideas of her great
visionaries. And as the Indian philosopher Sri Aurobindo opines, had Germany
fully understood the real purpose of the Will-to-Power
she would have been on the path to discover her real nation-soul or the
subjective force of which the lamp was lit by her great philosophers like Kant,
Hegel, Fitch, Nietzsche, by her great thinker and poet Goethe, by her great
musicians like Beethoven and Wagner and all the German soul and temperament
which they represented.27 But this real nation-spirit was not fully
recognized by Kiser William II or Bismarck whose appearance was in many respects
rather a misfortune for the Growing Germany. Because, Aurobindo says, Bismarck’s “rude and
powerful hand precipitated its subjectivity into form and action at too early a
stage”. Bismarck could not understand the real Germany
or her spiritual strength. Instead he took it for cruelty and aggression, and
failed to translate the visions of German philosophers to a proper outward
expression. He could not bridge the gulf between idea and imagination and the
world of facts, or between vision and work. He failed to have a desirable
transmission of the real German vision with the result that Germany took her demonic
appearance, lost her sublime potential and missed the real goal the
philosophers like Nietzsche compassed. As time passed Germany was dragged to the vortex
of two world collisions. The two world wars thus resulted from an undesirable
meeting together of or a ‘confused half struggle’ or a ‘half effort at
accommodation’ between “old intellectual and materialistic and the new still
superficial subjective and vitalistic impulses of the West”. Or it was due to
the “formidable combination of a falsely enlightened vitalistic motive-power
with a great force of…an accomplished materialistic science”, says Sri
Aurobindo.28   




 




  So deeply was
the Nietzschean thought influenced by the Vedanta philosophy that the former
could not be studied when taken away from the latter’s backdrop. Lou Von
Andreas-Salome, Nietzsche’s friend and biographer opined that “it is impossible
not to be aware of its [Vedanta’s] influence on Nietzsche’s work after 1883,
particularly as regards the deification of the creative philosopher and his
identification with the supreme principle of universal life”.29  So much was his reverence to the Upanishads
that he had even reservations about the Westerners interpreting them lest they
should be corrupted by well-meaning but “intellectually inferior Europeans”.
Thus commented Wilhelm Halfbfass on this Nietzschean fear:




 




 
What he says about Hinduism and Buddhism is inseparable from his
thinking and writing in general. It reflects its complexities and
idiosyncrasies, but also his deep and passionate concern about modern man and
the destiny of Europe… On the one hand,
[Indian thought] provides him with examples of a superior “yea-saying”, and
acceptance of this world which is higher than what is found in the Christian
tradition; on the other hand, it provides him with expressions of a more
advanced and refined denial of the world…Nietzsche considers the Law Book of
Manu to be an expression of “yea-saying, affirmative Aryan religion”, a proud
and realistic acceptance of life and an undisguised appreciation of power by a
non-moralizing elite superior by virtue of its inner spirit and freedom….



Buddhism is a hundred times more realistic
than Christianity – it possesses a heritage of posing problems objectively and
without emotion, it follows a philosophical movement that has endured for
hundreds of years…



Buddhism is a “religion of self-salvation”
– “how far away from this stage of culture is Europe
even now!” Europe must catch up with “what had already been achieved several
millennia ago in India,
among the people of thinkers, as a precept of thought!”30




 



It was in fact a reasonable fear since it was the
vulgarization of the Indian idea that he took and discoursed on in Europe that led to the two world wars. It was the
misinterpretation of Nietzsche’s Will-to-Power that maddened and demonized the
national and patriotic pride of the Germans which Bismarck
channeled wrongly into the quagmire of national antagonism in Europe.
None was as disillusioned as Nietzsche in seeing Germany’s nation-soul or
spirit losing its sublimity before the imperialistic frenzy for war and he
wrote, “the German Empire is extricating the German spirit”. And as Will Durant
observes, “the victory of 1871 had brought certain coarse conceit into the soul
of Germany; and nothing
could be more hostile to spiritual growth”.31 Hence the relevance of
the Nietzschean reservations regarding the Europeans’ dilettantish approach to
the lofty spiritual philosophy of India. So much was he pained at
this blasphemy of his lofty vision, which if properly understood, would have
added to the cultural and spiritual growth of the world that he felt almost
alone in a world which could not make out him fully. Even his magnum opus, Thus Spake Zarathustra which he deemed
was greater than all the teachings and ‘all the spirit and goodness of every
great soul…collected together” failed in its appeal to the Europeans. And as
Will Durant concludes, Nietzsche




 



had a bitter time getting it [Thus Spake Zarathustra] into print; the
first part was delayed because the publisher’s presses were busy with an order
for 500,000 hymn books, and then by a stream of anti-Semitic pamphlets; and the
publisher refused to print the last part at all, as quite worthless from the
point of view of shekels; so that the author had to pay for its publication
himself. Forty copies of the book were sold; seven were given away; one
acknowledged it; no one praised. Never was a man so much alone.32




    






 
  
Footnotes
                                                                          





  





1. Will Durant, Case
for India
, New York, 1930, p. 4.



2. Will Durant, The
Story of Philosophy
, New York,
1953, p. 307.



3. Swami Tathagatananda, Journey of the Upanishads to the West,




  

Calcutta
, 2005, p.  299.



4. Swami Vivekananda, ‘Secret
of the work’,




   
 
Selections
from Swami Vivekananda
, Calcutta,
1975, pp. 19-27.)



5. Gita, II,
50.



6.Ibid,
II, 58.



7. Swami
Vivekananda, Op. Cit.



8. Will Durant, The Story of Philosophy, p. 413.



9. FriedrichNietzsche – Selected Writings, (Edited by Stephen Metcalf)




   

New Delhi
, 1998, p. 102.



10. R. H. Twaney, The Philosophy of Nietzsche, New York, 1927, pp. 446-7.



11. FriedrichNietzsche – Selected Writings, Op.
Cit
, pp. 90-91.



12. A. Quinot, cited
in Raymond Schwab, Oriental Renaissance:
Europe’s Discovery





    
 of India
and the East, 1680-1880


, New York, 1984, pp. 453,
519.



13. Swami
Tathagatananda, Op. Cit, p. 300.



14. Friedrich Nietzsche,
The Anti-Christ, cited in Kewal
Motwani, Manu Dharma





    



 
S’astra: A Sociological and Historical Study,
Madras, 1958,
p. 328.



15. Nietzsche, The Twilight of Idols, cited in Kewal
Motwani, Op. Cit.



16. Frank Thilly, A History of Philosophy, Allahabad, 1984, p. 505.



17. Ibid, p. 504.



18. FriedrichNietzsche – Selected Writings,
Op. Cit, pp. 88-89.



19. kamatmatana prasasta. Manu. II. 2.



20. arthakameshvasaktanam dharmajnjanam
vidhiyate
. Manu. II. 13.



21. Friedrich Nietzsche: Selected Writings, Op. cit. pp. 98-99.



22. Ibid. p. 99.



23. Ibid. p. 101.



24. SriAurobindo, The Human Cycle – The Ideal of Human Unity – War and





     
Self-Determination


,
Pondicherry,
1985, p. 25.



25. Friedrich Nietzsche: Selected Writings,
Op. Cit, p.99.



26. SriAurobindo, Op. Cit, p. 34.



27. Ibid, pp. 34-35.



28. Complete Works of Sri AurobindoSri Aurobindo Library Centenary Edition,




    

Pondicherry
,
1970, Vol. XV, pp. 26-27.




 



Here again it is an Indian visionary who
stands ahead of the European thinkers in philosophically explaining why Germany
reaped disasters during 1871-1945 period. 
There are of course philosophers of history who did not peruse
historical process the way Sri Aurobindo did. Even Oswald Spengler, the German
philosopher-historian overlooked this aspect. He did not peruse deep into the
lack of vision on the part of Bismarck.
Instead Spengler believed that the doom of Germany
resulted from the discontinuity of Bismarckian tradition or from Bismarck’s failure to
train a political elite competent to deal with the foreign affairs. Spengler
cites the training of the medieval page, cloister education, the training of
Prussian officers’ corps, the English public schools and the university
training for Indian Civil Service and the training for the Roman Catholic
priesthood as some of the measures adopted by different institutions and
governments to preserve the long drawn traditions and newly established
systems. But Bismarck
had started nothing like, to train a class of political elite to carry on his
foreign policy. “It was the great flaw in Bismarck…that he could achieve but
could not form a tradition; that he did not parallel Moltke’s officer-corps by
a corresponding race of politicians who would identify themselves in feeling
with his State and its new tasks, would constantly take up good men from below
and so provide for the continuance of the Bismarckian action-pulse forever”. (See
OswaldSpengler, Decline of the West, English abridged edition by Arthur Helps, New
York, 1932, p. 386.) But here again it is the light from India that gives a clear
philosophical explanation to the Nietzschean thought and its erroneous
translation into practical politics. Hence the relevance of the interpretation
Sri Aurobindo gives to the Nietzsche’s ideas of Will-to-Power and Superman.
Because the question, what would have been the desirability involved in the
continuation of the Bismarckian tradition in German foreign policy is left
unanswered by Spengler. As well known Bismarck
was a clever ‘juggler’ who operated his foreign policy characterized with
double dealings and destructive tactics which put the whole Europe
in a political melting pot. In fact it was none other than Bismarck who dragged
the entire world to the vortex of the war and even if he had trained a school
of ‘jugglers’ who were Bismarcks reproduced, that would have in no way
prevented the World War or placed Germany in good relation with foreign states.
That would perhaps have artfully delayed the World War, but would not have
avoided it, for a work without proper vision or what is done in perversion of a
noble idea would reap only disasters. Herein lies the importance of
interpretation to Nietzschean thought by Sri Aurobindo and of course the
thought on the idea of ‘philosopher-politician’ inlaid in the flowerbed of
Indian political treatises including that of Manu which Nietzsche held in high
esteem.



29. RaymondSchwab,
Op. Cit, p. 437.



30. WilhelmHalfbfass, India and Europe:
An Essay in Understanding
,




     

Albany
, 1988, pp. 125-127.



31. Will Durant, Op.
Cit
, p. 410.



32. Ibid, p.
415.




 




*


Author
is Senior Lecturer in History, Sanatana Dharma College, Alappuzha and
Supervising Teacher for Ph D in History and Indology at Chinmaya International
Foundation, Kochi, a research centre of Mahatma Gandhi University


.  







Share on Facebook



 
  
Dino Castelbou
19/03/2009 19:37:18
thank you
C'est un beau travail que cet article ! merci 5



 

Feedback

All rights reserved. © 2005 - 2014. www.haindavakeralam.org